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[译文]金砖国家带来的挑战

时间:2014-7-31 15:03:23??作者:转载??来源:转载??查看:1610??评论:0
内容摘要:巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国和南非的金砖国家组织领导人,宣布成立金砖国家发展银行,目的是挑战美国领导的世界经济秩序。美国和欧洲应该注意的是,因为没有迎合这些国家的野心,这些国家决定不再受西方制度的束缚。

On July 15, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa — the BRICS group of nations — announced the creation of the New Development Bank aimed at challenging the American-led global economic order. The United States and Europe should take note that these nations are determined not to be constrained by Western institutions that fail to accommodate their ambitions.
在7月15日,巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国和南非的金砖国家组织领导人,宣布成立金砖国家发展银行,目的是挑战美国领导的世界经济秩序。美国和欧洲应该注意的是,因为没有迎合这些国家的野心,这些国家决定不再受西方制度的束缚。

The frustrations of this five-nation bloc are understandable, if somewhat divergent. Brazil and India blame the West’s 2008 financial crisis for sapping economic growth. South Africa and India need capital for infrastructure development, preferably without conditions imposed by the International Monetary Fund or World Bank. China, whose economy is expected to surpass that of the United States as the world’s biggest sometime soon, doesn’t see why its currency shouldn’t replace the American dollar in a good portion of global transactions. Russia, ousted from the Group of 8 and facing Western economic sanctions following its annexation of Crimea and support for rebels in Ukraine, is working to build closer relationships with China and the rest of its fellow BRICS.

五国集团所受的挫折时可以理解的,他们是觉醒了的国家。巴西和印度谴责西方2008年的经济危机消弱了其经济增长。南非和印度的基础设施建设需要资本,更加期望于国际货币基金组织的无条约贷款。中国,经济预期将很快超过美国成为****的经济体,想让它的货币为何在国际贸易中以合理的比例替代美元。俄罗斯,被驱逐出8国集团,因吞并克里米亚和支持乌克兰叛军而面临着西方国家的经济制裁,努力构建着与中国和其他金砖国家更紧密的关系。

The BRICS contain 40 percent of the world’s population and account for 20 percent of global economic output, yet only Europeans and Americans have led the I.M.F. or the World Bank. The United States Congress has contributed to frustration by refusing to pass legislation to shift voting power more fairly among I.M.F. member states — even though this would cost the United States nothing.

金砖国家组织包含40%的世界人口,20%的世界经济产出,目前只有欧洲和美国领导着I.M.F.和世界银行。美国国会决定拒绝通过将其在国际货币基金组织的投票权的和其他I.M.F.成员国家更加公平分享的制度,尽管这不耗费美国任何事情。

China represents 70 percent of the collective gross national product of the BRICS. A China Development Bank already exists, and China is creating its own Asian Development Bank. The New Development Bank will be based in Shanghai. India will assume the presidency of the bank for the first six years, followed by rotating terms for Brazil and Russia, but how this will counterbalance China’s economic clout is far from clear.

中国占据了金砖国家70%GDP。中国发展银行已经存在,并且中国正在创建器自己的亚洲发展银行。新的发展银行总部在上海。印度出任首任为期六年的银行总裁,然后巴西和俄罗斯轮换。但是这会如何抵消中国的经济影响力尚不明确。

The bank will begin with an initial capital of $50 billion, rising to $100 billion, with a separate $100 billion Contingent Reserve Arrangement. The BRICS plan to bring in other developing countries in Africa and Asia, and they are talking about creating a regional-security alternative to NATO.

金砖国家发展银行起始启动资金为500亿美元,将增加到1000亿美元,另外有1000亿美元的储备金。金砖国家组织还将吸收非洲和亚洲的其他发展中国家,他们还将讨论创建除NATO(北大西洋公约组织)的地区安全组织。

The BRICS nations have quite different political systems. Russia and China, for instance, are authoritarian regimes; India and Brazil are democracies. Some of them may be more willing than others to observe international norms on, say, human rights, and some may be more inclined to condition investments on environmental protection. It will be interesting to see how these differences play out in the bank’s governance and operations.

金砖国家有着相当不同的政治系统。例如,中国和俄罗斯,目前是集权国家;印度和巴西是民主国家。他们其中有些较其他更关注例如人权和投资环境保护、自然环境保护的国际问题。观察这些不同在金砖发展银行的管理和操作中的影响将是很有趣的事情。
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